Foundations for Implementation

Effective Data Systems for Behavior

A Multi-Tiered System of support uses a data-based problem solving process to make decisions about support provision in schools. This requires a data system that makes it easy to answer questions that come up during the problem-solving process.


Data Sources

Data sources should:

  1. DEFINE Help you to identify students' needs in relation to established goals

  2. ANALYZE Help you to understand the barriers to students' reaching their goals

  3. IMPLEMENT Provide sufficient info to select, match, and deliver services/supports to students

  4. EVALUATE Contribute to evaluating the effectiveness of services and supports provided to students


Displaying Data

At each tier, the frequency of data collection and evaluation should match the intensity of the supports provided to students. The way that data are displayed and used will vary depending on the specific questions that are being asked. Data systems must be flexible enough so that teams may combine and disaggregate their information as needed to problem-solve effectively.


Characteristics Using Data: Guiding Questions

Frequency and variety of assessments for monitoring progress should be matched to the intensity of the student’s needs

  • This may include very frequent data collection to assess more specific skills

Are the majority of students receiving intensive intervention making adequate progress?

  • If so, which students may be ready to transition off of Tier 3 support?
  • If not, consider if:
    • interventions have been provided with fidelity,
    • assessment strategies are sensitive enough to identify progress, or if
    • different interventions and/or intensity of interventions is needed to create a better fit with the needs of the “whole student”

Answer the questions necessary to identify effective strategies for significant learning challenges or barriers

Are students who are progressing at Tier 3 also demonstrating progress towards the Tier 1 expectations?

Data provide meaningful information about instructional effectiveness and student progress towards developmental and grade-level expectations

 
Characteristics Using Data: Guiding Questions

Assessment tools are easy and efficient for all staff members to complete

What are the similar instructional, social-emotional and/or behavioral needs among our students?

Varied for different student needs, but are always aligned to the Tier 1 expectations

Which small-group evidence-based interventions will meet those needs?

The frequency of assessment matches the level of student need (e.g., throughout the day, daily, weekly, etc.)

  • Progress towards behavior goals should be evaluated at least 1-2 times each month

Are the majority of students receiving a supplemental intervention making adequate progress?

  • If so, which students may be ready to transition off of Tier 2 support?
  • If not, consider if interventions have been provided with fidelity, or if different interventions and/or intensity is needed

Data provide meaningful information about instructional effectiveness and student progress

Are students who are progressing at Tier 2 also demonstrating progress towards the Tier 1 expectations?

Characteristics Using Data: Guiding Questions

Regular data collection allows educators to monitor the progress of all students

What do we expect our students to know, understand, and do as a result of instruction?

Data are used to guide instruction and lesson plans (formative assessment)

Do at least 80% of our students meet or exceed these expected levels?

  • If not, changes to Tier 1 are needed
  • If yes, are there subgroups of students for whom the core is not sufficient?

Data are used to evaluate effectiveness of Tier 1 instruction and supports (summative assessment – e.g., end-of -year PBSES evaluations)

What barriers have prevented students from reaching the expected levels?

Answer specific questions to guide effective problem solving

How will fidelity of support be monitored over time?

Inform evidence-based instructional practices and progress towards meeting school-wide or district-wide standards


Additional Reading